Heather Muckart is a Ph.D. Candidate in the Department of Art History, Visual Arts and Theory at the University of British Columbia. Specializing in medieval and early modern European art and culture, her dissertation examines the visual history of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century painted and printed portraits of early modern English martyrs and Protestant Reformers, particularly the series of images that were created in response to the violent religious conflicts and persecutions of the long Reformation of England (1531-1688). While popular among Reformers, the subject matter and formal qualities of these portraits problematically linked them with an increasingly contested kind of religious imagery: the visual depiction of holy persons, subject matter that was seen as particularly porous to the practices of idolatry and associated with the Church in Rome. Reformer martyr portraits iconographic echoing of the portrayal of Catholic saints—in both their form and content—situated them on a hermeneutically contradictory ground.